Vulcan

Zero Carbon Lithium™

We exist to decarbonise the carbon production footprint of lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles by producing a world-first Zero Carbon Lithium™ hydroxide monohydrate chemical product from our geothermal lithium_brine project in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

Lithium chemicals are a critical feedstock for manufacturing the batteries in electric vehicles. To fully electrify our cars with lithium-ion batteries, we need a lot of lithium.

The current main pathway for producing and refining lithium, from hard-rock mines, will emit approximately 1.05 billion tonnes of CO2 to produce the quantity of lithium required to electrify all the world’s passenger vehicles.

Unlike current lithium extraction processes, Zero Carbon Lithium™ will incur virtually zero disruption to communities or the environment. This means no large open pit mines, no large, unsightly and water-hungry evaporation ponds, or process plants running on fossil fuels.

See the difference below.

Hard Rock Mining

Open pit hard rock mines for lithium scar the landscape. Once you mine it, the rock has to be roasted with fossil fuels to produce lithium hydroxide. This is very CO2-intensive.

*One tonne of lithium hydroxide produced through hard rock mining requires approximately:

00000

CO2 Emitted (kg)

000

Water Used (m3)

000

Land Occupation (m2)

00000

Cost (per tonne)

Evaporation Ponds

Lithium extraction from brines in South America evaporates large quantities of water in the second driest place on earth. This stresses the environment and local indigenous communities.

*One tonne of lithium hydroxide produced through evaporation ponds requires:

0000

CO2 Emitted (kg)

000

Water Used (m3)

0000

Land Occupation (m2)

0000

Cost (per tonne)

*Minviro Life Cycle Analysis, 2020

Zero Carbon Lithium™

Draws on naturally occurring, renewable geothermal energy to power the lithium extraction process and create a renewable energy by-product. This uses no fossil fuels, requires very little water and has a tiny land footprint.

*One tonne of lithium hydroxide produced through our process requires:

0

CO2 Emitted (kg)

0.0

Water Used (m3)

0.0

Land Occupation (m2)

TBA

Cost (per tonne)

THE ZERO CARBON LITHIUM™ PROCESS

Through wells into the deep sub-surface, hot, lithium-rich brine from our project area is pumped to the surface.

  1. We will use renewable heat derived from our geothermal brine to drive the lithium extraction process, with no fossil fuel consumption.
  2. We will produce a surplus of renewable energy, decarbonising the grid.
  3. We will produce a unique, premium, battery-quality Zero Carbon Lithium™ hydroxide product for EVs.
  4. The spent brine then gets re-injected in a closed-loop cycle.

OUR PROPRIETARY ZERO CARBON LITHIUM™ PROCESS

1. Hot Brine Extraction

  • Hot brine is extracted from the ground and generates steam that powers turbines and produces renewable electricity.
  • They are standard geothermal production wells successfully implemented for decades.

2. Direct Lithium Extraction

  • We divert the brine flow and extract lithium from the solution with Direct Lithium Extraction (DLE) process.
  • Commercially used for decades (Argentina and successfully tested in California.

3. Brine Re-injection

  • Once the lithium has been extracted, the brine is re-injected in the ground.
  • No evaporation losses only takes a few hours, not dependent on weather.

4. Lithium Refining – No Toxic Waste

  • Lithium chloride is sent to the lithium refining plant which will use conventional methods to convert LiCl into BG LiOH.
  • Water is recycled, no toxic wastes, no gases are emitted, heat power from the geothermal plant, no fossil fuels are burned.
  • Expected to have a very low Opex.

We are protecting the intellectual property surrounding Vulcan’s Zero Carbon Lithium™ process in a number of ways:

  • German Utility Patent Application
  • International Patent Application
  • Trademark for Zero Carbon Lithium in multiple global jurisdictions

Vulcan to Offset CO2 Penalties for Automakers

A WHOLE NEW INDUSTRY IS BEING CREATED IN FRONT OF OUR EYES, A WHOLE NEW MARKET FOR ZERO-CARBON SOURCES OF BATTERY MATERIALS.

Vulcan CEO and founder Dr. Francis Wedin